টেমপ্লেট:fr-IPA/নথি

উইকিঅভিধান, মুক্ত অভিধান থেকে
পরিভ্রমণে ঝাঁপ দিন অনুসন্ধানে ঝাঁপ দিন

This template uses Module:fr-pron to generate the IPA pronunciation of French words or text. If no parameter is provided, it will use the page title. Normally the text should be the standard written form of the text.

Examples[সম্পাদনা]

Many tricky cases are handled correctly.

Text Result Comments
intransitives লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
château লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
accueil লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
plomb লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
prudemment লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
mangeait লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
baignoire লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
étudiions লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
joindre লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
shopping লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
tînmes লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
Cameroun লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। -oun is not a nasal vowel
prier লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। i before a vowel after Cl and Cr is /ij/ not /j/
truelle লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। u before a vowel after Cl and Cr is /y/ not /ɥ/
bruit লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। but ui is always /ɥi/
troua লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। ou before a vowel after Cl and Cr is /u/ not /w/
trois লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। but oi is always /wa/
dresser লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। e before ss is usually /ɛ/
essaim লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। but initial e before ss is /e/
ressemelez লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। and initial ress- is /rəs/
vous ressemelez লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। note the schwa handling in this and the previous example
aimerons লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
aimerions লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। note the schwa handling in this and the previous example
ouest লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। final -st is pronounced by default
il est লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। but est, es and et are special-cased

But in some cases it is necessary to use respelling to indicate the correct pronunciation. Example:

Text Result Respelling Result Comments
hiver লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। hiverre লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। -r in final -er not pronounced by default
fils লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। fisse লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। another possibility is fiç
soixante লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। soissante লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। another possibility is soiçante
août লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। oute লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
mille লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। mile লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। -ill after a consonant is pronounced by default like fille
caoutchouc লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। caoutchou লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। final -c after a vowel is pronounced by default
suspect লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। suspet লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। final -ct after a vowel is pronounced by default
chaos লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। caos লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
donc লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। donque লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। final -c in -nc is not pronounced by default
parfum লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। parfun লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। final -um pronounced by default like maximum
shampooing লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। shampoing লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
œufs লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। œux লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
Vientiane লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। Viaintiane লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
cowboy লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। cauboille লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। English loanwords usually require respelling
boycotter লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। boillcotter লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। note that -ill- can be used even before a consonant

Use টেমপ্লেট:para to indicate that a word is a verb. This currently only affects final -ai, -ent, and -tions.

Text Result without pos=v Result with pos=v Comments
aimerai লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
aiment লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
portions লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।

Use the symbols ŏ, , ă to force the "lax" sounds /ɔ/ /œ/ /a/ in certain circumstances where the "tense" variants /o/ /ø/ /ɑ/ would otherwise be used (see below). These are the opposite of the standard symbols ô, , â, which force the "tense" variants.

Text Result Respelling Result Comments
sosie লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। sŏsie লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। o is /o/ before /z/
putter (respelled "peuter") লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। peŭter লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। eu is /ø/ word-initially and before /t/
aimas লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। aimăs লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। a is /ɑ/ before final written s, z

Schwas of various sorts:

  • Use ə (a schwa symbol) to force a normal schwa where e would otherwise be interpreted differently (e.g. in -ess-; but note that ress- /rəs/ is special-cased). This may be indicated as mandatory, optional or deleted depending on context, exactly like any other schwa.
  • Use (ə) (a schwa in parens) to force an optional schwa.
  • Use ĕ to force an always-pronounced schwa.
  • Use ė to force a never-pronounced schwa.
Text Result Respelling Result Comments
dessous লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। dəssous লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। another possibility is the respelling deçous
sens dessus dessous লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। sens dəssus dəssous লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। shown here as optional, just as normal e would
syndrome d'Asperger লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। syndrome d'Aspergĕr লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। regular ə would also work here

Use an underscore to break up a set of letters that would be interpreted specially and force the letters on either side to be interpreted on their own. Examples:

Text Result Respelling Result Comments
gnou লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। g_nou লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
week-end লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। wik-e_nde লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। use an underscore between vowel and n to force the n to be fully pronounced
sprinter লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। spri_nter লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। another possibility is the respelling sprineter or sprinėter
amuïr লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। amu_ir লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
Washington লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। Washing_tonne লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। -ing after consonant is /iŋ/ if final or followed by an underscore

Use the symbol ‿ to indicate liaison.

Text Result Respelling Result
vous avez লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। vous‿avez লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
s'en aller লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। s'en‿aller লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
bon ami লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। bon‿ami লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
pied-à-terre লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। pied‿à-terre লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
premier étage লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। premier‿étage লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
peut-être লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। peut‿être লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
neuf ans লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। neuf‿ans লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
beaux-arts লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। beaux‿arts লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।
jouent-ils, pos=v লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)। jouent‿ils, pos=v লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।

Many more examples can be found in Module:fr-pron/testcases.

Parameters[সম্পাদনা]

টেমপ্লেট:para, টেমপ্লেট:para, etc. are used to indicate one or more pronunciations, possibly respelled. See examples above for how this respelling works. An omitted parameter defaults to the pagename. You can indicate multiple pronunciations, e.g.

  • {{fr-IPA|phrâser|phraser}}: লুয়া ত্রুটি: bad argument #1 to 'find' (string expected, got table)।

টেমপ্লেট:para indicates that a word in the text is a verb, and controls the handling of certain endings (-ai, -ent, -tions); see examples above.

You can tag any pronunciation with a qualifier using টেমপ্লেট:para, টেমপ্লেট:para, etc. and a reference using টেমপ্লেট:para, টেমপ্লেট:para, etc., as with {{IPA}}.

Details[সম্পাদনা]

Consonants[সম্পাদনা]

  • b is normally /b/, but:
    • It is silent in final -mb(s).
    • It is /p/ in the sequence bs (obstacle).
  • c is normally /k/, but:
    • It is /s/ before a front vowel, i.e. e, i, y, æ, ə or accented versions of these; also œ (cœliaque), except in the sequence œu (cœur with /k/). To get a hard c before a front vowel, write k or qu; to get a soft c before a back vowel, write ç.
    • ch is /ʃ/.
    • c is silent in final nc(t)(s).
  • ç is always /s/.
  • d is /d/, but:
  • It is silent in final -d and -ds. -ied(s) is /je/ (pied, assieds, etc.).
  • f is always /f/.
  • g is normally /ɡ/ (note, this is a special IPA character, not the normal g character), except:
    • g is /ʒ/ before a front vowel, i.e. e, i, y, æ, ə or accented versions of these; also œ, except in the sequence œu (Argœuves with /ɡ/). To get a hard g before a front vowel, write gu; to get a soft g before a back vowel, write j; to get a pronounced gu before a front vowel, write .
    • gn is /ɲ/. To get /ɡn/, write g_n.
    • টেমপ্লেট:anchor ng is /ŋ/ (as in parking, shopping) in the sequence consonant+ing when word-finally, before final s, or before _. Use _ to get ing -> /iŋ/ elsewhere in a word, e.g. respell Washington as Washing_tonne and swinguer as swing_guer. Note that vowel+ing (as in poing) is interpreted by the next rule.
    • Final g(s) is silent, as in rang, long, seing, joug and plurals.
    • g is silent in the sequence ngt, as in vingt.
  • h is normally silent. Note:
  • j is always /ʒ/.
  • k is always /k/.
  • l is /l/, except:
    • ill is /j/ after a vowel (faillir), /ij/ after a consonant fille, and /il/ word-initially illustrer. This applies regardless of what follows, which is useful in respellings (e.g. boycotter can be respelled boillcotter to get /bɔj.kɔ.te/). An exception is the sequence uill following a consonant, which is rendered /ɥij/ (as in juillet, cuillère) rather than expected */yj/. Note that many words having ill after a consonant are pronounced with /il/ rather than /ij/ (mille, village, tranquillité), and will need respelling using il.
    • The sequence oil is /wal/ (poil), unless another l follows (to allow respellings like cauboille /ko.bɔj/ for cowboy).
    • Otherwise, word-final il(s) is /j/ after a vowel (travail, orteil), /il/ otherwise (ils, avril, profil).
    • In the sequence vowel+il+consonant, il is rendered as /j/; this is an alternative way to get /j/ in respellings.
    • Special cases:
      • œil (œil, œillet) is interpreted as if spelled œuil.
      • cueil (accueil) is interpreted as if spelled keuil.
      • gueil (orgueil) is interpreted as if spelled gueuil.
      • oel, oêl (moelle, poêle) are interpreted as if spelled wal.
  • m is /m/, except that it normally indicates nasalization when preceding b, p, or f (tomber, imprimer, symphonie), and also in the word-final sequences om(s), aim(s), eim(s) (faim, Reims, nom). Exceptions and special cases:
    • The sequence oum represents /um/ (schtroumpf), not a nasal vowel.
    • Word-final um(s) represents /ɔm/ (maximum, album).
  • n is normally /n/, but usually indicates nasalization when following a vowel and not preceding a vowel or another n. Exceptions and special cases:
    • The sequence oun represents /un/ (Cameroun, Bouroundi), not a nasal vowel.
    • Word-final ing(s) after a consonant represents /iŋ/ (parking, shopping). See the entry for g above for the precise rules.
    • nh is rendered as /n/ except in word-initial enh-. See the entry for h above for the precise rules.
  • p is /p/, except:
  • q and qu are always /k/. To represent a pronounced u, use ü if pronounced /ɥ/ (as in aquifère, ubiquité), and w if pronounced /w/ (as in adéquat, équanimité, squatter).
  • r is /ʁ/, but is silent in final -er(s), which is rendered /e/ (aimer, volontiers, dîners, papiers). Exception: -er(s) in single-syllable words (cher, vers) is rendered /ɛʁ/. Words with pronounced final -er(s) in multisyllabic words will need respelling with -erre, e.g. travers, tiers.
  • s is normally /s/, but:
    • It is /z/ between vowels and silent word-finally.
    • Words where s between vowels is /s/ (asocial, susurrer) will need respelling with ç, ss or (if before a front vowel) c. (Be careful with respelling using ss, as it may change the interpretation of a preceding e.)
    • Words where final s is pronounced (ours, métis, sens) will need respelling (e.g. ourse/ource/ourss/ourç/etc., métisse, sense).
    • sh, sch, ssh are /ʃ/, except that initial désh- is /dez/ (déshonorer, déshabitué).
    • In initial trans- and intrans- preceding a vowel, s is /z/.
    • টেমপ্লেট:anchor The words es and est are rendered as if spelled ès and èt, respectively (i.e. they will be rendered as /ɛ/ except in a liaison context).
    • Except in the word est, final -st is pronounced (ouest, podcast, permafrost).
  • t is normally /t/, but:
  • v is always /v/.
  • w is always /w/.
  • x is normally /ks/, but:
  • z is normally /z/, but:
    • Final z is silent (allez, nez). [FIXME: Should only apply to -ez.] Final -ez is rendered as /e/.

Vowels[সম্পাদনা]

  • a is /a/, except that it is /ɑ/ before final -s and -z.
  • (continue to fill in)